EX Reactor Model
The BMS-Exotron’s materials minimization and destruction technology consists of a continuous multi-stage process, with the first stage being a direct or indirect fired vacuum assisted reactor where the materials to be thermally destroyed are moved through a series of various temperature zones under controlled (reductive/oxidative) atmospheres. The heating process in most cases takes place in an external shell which prevents comingling of the burner exhausts with the material decomposition gasses. The process is continuous, whereby the materials to be processed are first particle size reduced, and then continuously fed into the system at controlled rates. Some models offer a recycle option, whereby the exhaust gasses from the heating system can be reintroduced into the main chamber. Direct fired systems are also offered for specific waste streams. The units are fully integrated, and skid mounted. Simple connections reduce installation time to two days. Typical utility services required include 3-phase 480V power (100 Amp) and up to 10,000 SCFH of natural gas. The natural gas range is between 2,000 and 10,000 SCFH depending on feed material composition.
UL Reactor Model
The thermal breakdown of materials in the EX Reactor of IFTO results in the formation of NO and NO2, otherwise referred to as NOx. Control of NOx is critical in any thermal process. The UL Reactor uses the chemistry created in the EX Reactor, in combination with other processes to manage NO and NO2. The former can undergo reduction reactions with the gas phase components while the latter is fully oxidizes. Other acidic gasses can also be managed in the same way, producing byproducts that can be easily scrubbed out of the stream.
EX IFTO Model
The thermal breakdown of materials in the EX Reactor results in the formation of “gaseous byproducts”, or what is more commonly referred to as “pyro gas.” The pyro gas consists of a number of breakdown components and generally has a calorific value. The controlled feed of the solid materials into the first stage results in a constant flow of pyro gasses into the thermal oxidizer, and the subsequent destruction of the pyro gas. The EX IFTO consists of a multistage chamber used to drive the primary conversion of the pyro gas to carbon dioxide and water vapor. The typical operating temperature range for the IFTO is expected to be between 1,500 °F (815 °C) to 1,800 °F (980 °C). Higher temperatures can be achieved should it be required for difficult compounds. The system used in this design was built using ceramic fiber insulation on the inside. This is a rather light weight material, and had a relatively long life, whereas the old refractory would tent to fail over a period of years by attrition of expansion and contraction. The IFTO is the first line of pollution control.
Technology Development & Commercialization
The Exotron Line of Thermal Destruction Systems
- Direct & Indirect Heated Reaction Chambers
- Direct & Indirect Heated Thermal Oxidizers
- Pollution Management
The Exotron (NV) Inc. materials reduction systems comprises:
- Skid mounted batch or continuous process
- Distributed over a two-to-three unit operation system
The indirect process heats an external shell which prevents comingling of the burner exhausts with the material decomposition gasses. These are cases where combining the two streams is used to achieve certain reaction conditions. The primary system can consist of several heating sources, with natural gas fired burners being the most common. The produced or resultant gasses are transferred with a high temperature (and flow) fan. The typical operating temperature range for this system is expected to be approximately 1200 °F, but the system has an operating range of up to 2300 °F.
The first unit operation is based on thermal cracking of the waste from the large molecules that make up the respective materials to form intermediate size but volatile molecular weight fragments. The second unit operation is based on further breakdown of the intermediate size molecules to small fragments, through several controlled steps. At this stage, the reactor conditions are critical in managing the formation/elimination of potential pollutants.
The third unit operation consists of a multistage chamber used to drive the conversion of the residual gasses to carbon dioxide and water vapor. Typical operating temperatures in this unit operation are generally between 1500 °F (815 °C) to 1800 °F (980 °C). Higher temperatures can be achieved should they be required. They system is built using ceramic fiber insulation on the inside, which is a light-weight material that can withstand expansion and contraction.